Reporters Without Borders

Les prédateurs

Cuba
Raúl Castro
President of the Council of State and Council of Ministers

Fidel Castro passed the reins of power to his younger brother Raúl, the defence minister, five days after falling ill on 26 July 2006 and undergoing a major operation. Formally confirmed as President of the Council of State on 24 February 2008, Raúl has behaved little better than his brother as regards civil liberties, and the harassment of independent journalists and bloggers has never stopped. It includes police brutality, summonses and searches by State Security (the political police) and detention for short periods.

The page has nonetheless been turned on the “Black Spring” crackdown of March 2003. From July 2010 to March 2011, the regime freed a total of 52 dissidents jailed during the crackdown, a third of who had been running or working for small independent news agencies before their arrest. Most of them had to agree to forced exile in exchange for their release.

Abdullah ibn Abdulaziz Al-Saud - Saudi Arabia Alexander Lukashenko - Belarus Ayatollah Ali Khamenei - Iran Baloch armed groups - Pakistan Bashar Al-Assad - Syria Camorra (Naples), 'Ndrangheta (Calabria), Sacra Corona Unita (Puglia), Cosa Nostra (Sicily) - Italy China – Xi Jinping - China Choummaly Sayasone - Laos Gurbanguly Berdymukhammedov - Turkmenistan Ilham Aliyev - Azerbaijan Islam Karimov – President, Uzbekistan - Uzbekistan Israel Defence Forces - Uzbekistan Issaias Afeworki - Eritrea Jabhat Al-Nosra - Syria Kim Jong-un - North Korea King Hamad Ben Aissa Al Khalifa - Bahrain Leaders and members of extremist religious groups - Maldives Mahmoud Ahmadinejad - Maldives Mexico : Miguel Trevino Morales, alias Z-40, and the Zetas drug cartel - Mexico Miguel Facussé Barjum - Honduras Mullah Mohammad Omar - Pakistan Nguyen Phu Trong - Vietnam Nursultan Nazarbayev - Kazakhstan Paul Kagame - Rwanda Philippines: private militias - Philippines Ramzan Kadyrov - Russia Raúl Castro - Cuba Somalia - Al-Shabaab, Islamist militia - Cuba Swaziland - Mswati III, King - Swaziland Teodoro Obiang Nguema - Equatorial Guinea The intelligence services - Pakistan The Islamist group Boko Haram - Nigeria The Rajapakse brothers - Sri Lanka The ruling Muslim Brotherhood - Sri Lanka Vasif Yusif Oghlu Talibov - Azerbaijan Vladimir Putin - Russia Yahya Jammeh - Gambia Zimbabwe - Robert Mugabe, president - Zimbabwe “Otoniel” and Los Urabeños – paramilitaries - Colombia
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